The Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism traces its origin back to Buddha Shakyamuni. The most important source for the specific practices that characterize the Kagyu order is the great Indian yogi Tilopa (988-1069), one of the 84 mahasiddhas of India, who first developed the spontaneous insight of enlightened realization. He gained this realization through the methods that were taught by the historical Buddha Shakyamuni to his closest students, methods that continued to be practiced during the time of Tilopa. In turn, the realization of these masters was passed down to their disciples through the great forefathers of the lineage: Indian mahasiddha Naropa, Marpa-the great translator, Milarepa-the greatest yogi of Tibet, and then to Gampopa-whose coming was prophesied by the Buddha. The lineage of the Kagyu emphasizes the continuity of oral instructions passed on from master to student, from whence the name “Kagyu” derives.

Here, we provide information on the following topics regarding the Kagyu Lineage :

    • Kagyu Scriptures
    • Tantra and Mahamudra Journeys
    • Four Elder and Eight Younger Lineages
    • Kagyu Seats in Tibet and Exile
    • The Head of the Kagyu Lineage

噶舉傳承源自釋迦牟尼佛。傳承法系中的第一位上師帝洛巴(Tilopa)是印度八十四大成就者之一。釋迦牟尼佛親傳其主要弟子的教法沒有間斷地傳承至帝洛巴所依止的上師,透過此教法瑜加士帝洛巴得到了證悟 *。此法教如黃金念珠般的代代相傳。帝洛巴之後依次為:大學者那洛巴(Naropa),將佛法帶入西藏之大譯師馬爾巴(Marpa Lotsawa),大瑜伽士密勒日巴(Milarepa),曾被佛陀預言的證悟者岡波巴(Gampopa)。噶舉(Kagyu)藏文的含意是「口傳」(Ka)及「傳承」(gyu),它是以直接口喻方式將三身心要、四種成就法等等法教傳給弟子,以確保法教正確的延續。所謂傳承,是指佛陀的法教沒有間斷的代代相傳,由佛陀一直傳到今天。                                                                                            

* 此為證悟的瑜加士帝洛巴所持有的間接傳承。同時,帝洛巴直接由法身金剛總持(Dorje Chang)的報身領受了獲得證悟的法教,稱為直接傳承。領受法教後,他依止了四位上師,接受並融合了四個成就傳承的法教並傳承至今。

此處將介紹下列有關噶舉傳承的資料 :

    • 噶舉經典
    • 密續和大手印之道
    • 四大八小支派
    • 噶舉在西藏和境外的主寺
    • 噶舉傳承的領導

| 噶舉經典

The general Buddhist canon of the Kagyur (bk’a ‘gyur) – “translated words of the Buddha,” and Tengyur (bstan ‘gryur) – “translated treatises” provides the primary sources for the Kagyu lineage.

In addition to that, the lineage relies on many hundreds of volumes from the Kagyu masters, starting with the Indian mahasiddhas, Tilopa, Naropa, as well as from the Tibetan yogis, Marpa, Milarepa, Gampopa, the Karmapas, and other great masters of all the kagyu lineages.

Some of the most distinguished works of the Kagyu Tibetan masters are the works of Marpa, the Vajra Songs Of Milarepa, the Collected Works of Gampopa, of the Karmapas, of Drikhung Kyöppa Jigten Sumgön, and of Drukpa Kunkhyen Pema Karpo, and the works of many other masters too numerous to be counted.

The Karmapas played a very important role in the preservation of the lineage through contributing to the Kagyu lineage scriptures. For example, the first Karmapa, Düsum Khyenpa (1110-1193), second, Karma Pakshi (1206-1282), and ninth, Wangchuk Dorje (1556-1603) are known for their exceptional accomplishments in meditation and their contribution of writings mainly focused on the practice lineage. The third, Rangjung Dorje (1284-1339), the seventh, Chödrak Gyatso (1454-1506), and the eighth, Mikyö Dorje (1507-1554), are renowned for their scholastic works in sutra and tantra commentaries. The tenth, Chöying Dorje (1604-1674) was a great artist and poet.

Later in 19th century master, Jamgon Kongtrul the Great (1813-1899) compiled the “Treasury Of The Kagyu Mantraya,” which became one of the main sources of instructions, tantric empowerments, and sadhanas for the Kagyu lineage.

噶舉傳承經典源於經藏─《甘珠爾 》(Kagyur)和論藏─《丹珠爾 》(Kengyur)。《甘珠爾 》是譯成藏文的佛陀法語,《丹珠爾》是譯成藏文的論著和注釋。


西藏噶舉大師們的重要著作有:《馬爾巴全集》、《密勒日巴的道歌》、《岡波巴全集》、歷代噶瑪巴以及直貢覺巴吉登 松昆(Drikhung Kyöpa Jigten Sumgon)、竹巴袞嘉貝瑪卡波(Drukpa Kunkhyen Pema Karpo)等大師們的著作。

歷代噶瑪巴不斷的充實典藉,這是延續傳承很重要的因素。譬如第一世噶瑪巴,杜松虔巴(Düsum Khyenpa 1110~1193),第二世噶瑪巴希(Karma Pakshi 1206~1282)第九世旺秋多傑(Wangchuk Dorje 1556~1603)都是著名的大禪師並對實修有很重要的論著。第三世讓烱多傑(Rangjung Dorje 1284~1339),第七世確札嘉措(Chodrak Gyaltso 1454~1506),第八世米覺多傑(Mikyo Dorje 1507~1554)都以註釋經藏和續藏著名,第十世確映多傑(Chöying Dorje 1604~1674)則是著名的藝術家和詩人。

十九世紀時,蔣貢康楚仁波切(Jamgon Kongtrul 1813~1899)編輯了一部《知識寶藏》成為噶舉傳承教法、灌頂和儀軌的重要參考資料。

| 密續和大手印之道

The Kagyu lineage practices the quintessential points of both sutra and tantra teachings, with a special focus on the tantric teachings of the Vajrayana and Mahamudra teachings. In this tradition, there are two major paths: (1) the path of skilful means and (2) the path of liberation.

(1) The Path Of Skilful Means (thabs lam) is the path of tantra or vajrayana that is rich in methods or skilful means. This path includes the journey on the four levels of tantras –

  1. Kirya-tantra, activity or action tantra
  2. Charya-tantra, engagement or performance tantra
  3. Yoga-tantra, intensive spiritual practice
  4. Anuttarayoga-tantra, unsurpassed or unexcelled yoga tantra

The last tantra has three main parts, the father tantra (pha rgyud), the mother tantra (ma rgyud), and the non-dual tantra (gnyis med rgyud). The Kagyu lineage emphasizes these three tantras in general and the mother and the non-dual tantra in specific. All tantric practices are basically comprised of two main elements – training in the Development Stage (bskyed rim or Utpatti-krama), the visualization practices, and training in the Completion Stage (rdzogs rim or Sampanna-krama), the fulfillment, perfection, or dissolving stage practices.

The Development Stage of the Tantric Yidams (yi dam – enlightened mind manifesting in different forms of the deity) practice in the Kagyu lineage is taught through a variety of Tantras and Yidam practices. The three main Tantric Yidam practices that are unique to the Kagyu School are Vajrayogini (rdo rje phag mo), Cakrasambhava (khor lo sde mchog), and Gyalwa Gyamtso (rgyal ba rgya mtsho). There are also some tantric protector practices such as the different forms of Mahakalas, and others.

The Completion Stage of the innermost tantric practice is taught to be the most sacred and profound of all levels of tantric practice. This includes the practices of Prana (rlung), Nadi (rtsa), and Bindu (thig le). One of the heart essences of Kagyu lineage practices is the Completion Stage (rdzogs rim / Sampanakrama) practice of the Anuttarayoga Mother tantra, which is known as the Six Dharmas Of Naropa (nA ro chos drug), widely known in the west as the Six Yogas Of Naropa. This lineage of tantra continues in the present day in all schools of Kagyu and especially in the Karma Kagyu lineage.

(2) The Path Of Liberation (grol lam) is the practice of the most renowned Mahamudra (phyag rgya chen po), or The Great Seal, which is the highest meditation training and the unique feature of the Kagyu tradition. In Gampopa’s lineage, there are three ways of giving the Mahamudra instructions or the three types of Mahamudra. These three types of Mahamudra traditions are

  1. the Sutra (mdo lugs) Mahamudra
  2. the Mantra (sngags lugs) Mahamudra
  3. the Essence (snying po lugs) Mahamudra

Gampopa, whose coming was prophesied by the Buddha, taught Mahamudra in these three different ways and this has become a tradition in the Kagyu lineage. This tradition and the lineage is continued to the present day. While taught in all Kagyu Schools, it is taught very clearly in the Karma Kagyu lineage.

Both aspects of Tantra and Mahamudra teachings are connected to the direct understanding and realization of the nature of the mind, known in this tradition as the “ordinary mind” (thamal gyi shepa) and the “vajra mind” (sems kyi rdo rje).

These two main tracks of meditation practice and instruction are common to all schools of the Kagyu lineage in general, with respect to the terms of the Four Tantras or the pattern of ground, path, and fruition Mahamudra key instructions. However, there are slight differences in how these aspects are presented and the methods of approach to Tantra and Mahamudra.


(1) 方便法門指金剛乘、密續所常用的方法,此法包括密續的四部

  1. 事部(Kirya-tantra)行動密續
  2. 行部(Charya-tantra)
  3. 瑜伽續部(Yoga-tantra)密集修心
  4. 無上瑜伽部(Anuttarayoga-tantra)

第四部又分三部份,父續、母續和無二續,是噶舉傳承主要修法,並特別重視母續和無二續。所有的教法都經由兩個次第來完成: 生起次第的觀修,和圓滿次第的融入自性。

噶舉傳承所修生起次第中,觀想本尊是源自密續和本尊法。三個最主要的本尊為金剛亥母(Vajrayogini),勝樂金剛(Chakrasambhava),和紅觀音(Gyalwa Gyamtso)。 此外還有對護法的修法,譬如瑪哈嘎拉法。

圓滿次第教授被認為是各種教法中最殊勝和神聖的密續修法,它包括氣(Prana)脈(Nadi)和明點(Bindu)的修法。在噶舉傳承中最精要的教法是圓滿次第無上瑜伽母續(Anuttarayoga Mother Tantra)的修法,亦稱為那洛六法。此修持法一直是噶舉傳承修法的重心,特別為噶瑪噶舉傳承所重視。

(2) 解脫法門是指修持著名的大手印(Mahamudra or The Great Seal),它是最高層次禪法,也是噶舉傳承獨特的法。岡波巴傳承中指出有五種方式傳授大手印,也可以歸納成三種方式傳授大手印。此三種方式為:

  1. 經部大手印
  2. 密續部大手印
  3. 心髓大手印





Gampopa’s Dakpo Kagyu tradition gave rise to four elder and eight younger lineages * founded by his accomplished disciples.

* The direct disciples of Gampopa and his nephew Gompo Tsultrim Nyingpo have founded the four elder lineages, and the next generation stemming from them, especially Pakmodrukpa, are known as the eight younger lineages. Here elder and younger are simply refering to the time of establisment.


(1) The Phaktru (‘Phag Gru) Kagyu

Deshek Phakmo Trupa Dorje Gyalpo (1110-1170), who was one of the main students of Gampopa and is especially known for his realization and transmission of the Mahamudra lineage, founded this lineage of the Kagyu school. He also founded a monastery in the Phakmo area, which was later called Densa Thil. Many additional schools of Kagyu lineage grew from Phakmo Trupa’s disciples.

(2) The Kamtsang (Kam Tshang) Or Karma (Kar Ma) Kagyu
The First Karmapa, Düsum Khyenpa (1110-1193), who was one of the main students of Gampopa, founded this lineage of the Kagyu School. In 1139 C.E., at the age of thirty, Düsum Khyenpa met Gampopa and became his disciple. This tradition has remained strong and successful due mainly to the presence of an unbroken reincarnate line of the founder, the successive Karmapas. All the successive incarnations of the Karmapas are very well know in every part of Tibet and among all Tibetan Buddhist practitioners, for their accomplishments in meditation, scholarship, and the activities of benefiting beings.

His Holiness the Sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje (1924-1981) was the head of the entire Kagyu tradition. His incarnation, His Holiness the Seventeenth Gyalwa Karmapa, is now living in India as an exiled Tibetan refugee.

The Karma Kagyu lineage has played a very important role in preserving and continuing, not only the Karma Kagyu, but also the entirety of the Kagyu transmissions that have been passed down from Marpa, Milarepa, and Gampopa. The Karma Kagyu lineage is the most influential of the Tibetan buddhist lineages outside Tibet, and this tradition is studied and practiced all around the world today. 

(3) The Tsalpa (Tshal Pa) Kagyu
Lama Zhang, otherwise known as Yudakpa Tsondu Dakpa (1123-1193), whose main teacher was Wangom Tsultrim Nyingpo, a student of Gampopa, founded this tradition. He is also the founder of Gungthang monastery and had many learned students.

(4) The Barom (‘Ba’ Rom) Kagyu
Barom Darma Wangchuk, a student of Gampopa, founded this tradition. He was also the founder of Barom monastery in the northern Latö region of Tibet and the name of the tradition came from this.

The eight younger lineaeges of the Kagyu lineage have developed within the Phaktru Kagyu.

1.The Drikhung (‘bri gung) Kagyu
Founded by Drikhung Kyopa Jigten Sumgyi Gönpo (1143-1217). Drikung Kyapgön Chetsang Rinpoche (b. 1946), who resides in Dehradun, India, is the present head of the Drikhung Kagyu lineage.

2. The Drukpa (‘brug pa) Kagyu
Founded by Drupchen Lingrepa Pema Dorje (1128-1188), a student of Phakmo Trupa, and his disciple Chöje Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje, (1161-1211). They founded the first seat of this lineage, Namdruk Monastery in central Tibet. Later, Kunkhyen Pema Karpo (1527-1592) founded the Druk Sang-ngak Chöling in southern Tibet, which became the main seat of this lineage. Kapgön Drukchen Rinpoche, who lives in Darjeeling, India, is the present head of the lineage. This lineage, adopted as the state religion of the Kingdom Of Bhutan, originally was brought there by the great Drukpa Kagyu master Shaptrung Ngakwang Namgyal and flourished in Bhutan throughout the centuries. His Holiness Je Khenpo of Bhutan and the present King of Bhutan Jigme Senge Wangchuk are the head of Drukpa Kagyu in Bhutan.

3. The Taklung (stag lung) Kagyu
Founded by Taklung Thangpa Tashi Pal (1142-1210). Taklung Shapdrung Rinpoche, is presently heads the lineage, along with Taklung Matul Rinpoche and Tsatrul Rinpoche.

4. The Yasang (g.y’a bzang) Kagyu
Founded by Zarawa Kalden Yeshe Senge (? – 1207 d.), a student of Phakmo Trupa, and his disciple Yasang Chöje Chökyi Mönlam (1169-1233). Yasang Chöje founded the Yasang or Yamsang (g.yam bzang) monastery in 1206 C.E. and the name of the lineage came from that.

5. The Trophu (khro phu) Kagyu
Founded by Rinpoche Gyatsa, nephew and a student of Phakmo Trupa, and his disciple Trophu Lotsawa Champa Pal (1173-1225). Trophu Lotsawa founded the Trophu monastery and institute in the Tsang region of central Tibet and the name of the lineage derives from this.

6. The Shuksep (shug gseb) Kagyu
Founded by Gyergom Tsultrim Senge (1144-1204), who was a student of Phakmo Trupa. He founded the Shuksep monastery in 1181 C.E., in the Nyephu area in the Chushur region of central Tibet, from whence comes the name of the lineage.

7. Yelpa (yel pa) Kagyu
Founded by Yelpa Drupthop Yeshe Tsekpa (century?) who founded the monasteries in Yelphuk.

8. Martsang (smar tshang) Kagyu
Founded by Martsang Sherab Senge, a student of Phakmo Trupa.

The Shangpa Kagyu, one of the main Kagyu lineages, was founded by the great yogi, Khyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079). Khyungpo Nyaljor traveled to Nepal where he met Acharya Sumati and received training as a translator and then traveled to India. He received teachings from one hundred and fifty scholars and yogis and mastered the vajrayana teachings. Khyungpo Naljor’s main teachers are Sukhasiddha, Rahulagupta and Niguma, the consort of Naropa. When he returned to Tibet, he received the monastic vows from the Kadampa master, Langri Thangpa.

Khyungpo Naljor established many monasteries in the regions of Phenyul and the “Shang” area of the Tsang region of Tibet, and therefore, the lineage he founded came to be known as the “Shangpa” Kagyu. He continued his activities of teaching and propagating the Shangpa Kagyu lineage for over thirty years in Tibet. He had many students and passed down the lineage he received, which continues today.

Some of the main practices of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage are Chakrasambhava, Hevajra, Mahamaya, Guhyasamaja, the Six Doctrines of Niguma, Mahamudra, the Six-armed and the White Mahakala, and others. Jamgon Kongtrul the Great made a tremendous effort to revive and preserve the lineage of the Shangpa Kagyu, which is now flourishing in Tibet and outside through the blessings and aspirations of Jamgon Kongtrul and the Sixteenth Karmapa. Two of the main contemporary Shangpa Kagyu masters are the Very Venerable Kalu Rinpoche (1905-89) and Bokar Rinpoche.

岡波巴(達波拉結)創始達波噶舉(Dakpo Kagyu),他的弟子繼承及發揚光大並創始四大八小噶舉 *

* 從岡波巴和他的姪子岡波.竹清寧波兩位大師的直接弟子傳承下來的,稱為「四大」。 在直接弟子之後、再傳弟子(帕莫竹巴的成就弟子眾)所傳承下來的,稱為「八小」。 在此,大小所指的單純是支派創立順序上的先後。 


1. 帕竹噶舉 (Phaktru Kagyu)
德謝帕莫竹巴多傑加波(Deshek Phakmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo 1110-1170)是岡波巴的主要弟子,以修大手印著名,創始此傳承。他在帕莫(Phakmo)建了鄧薩梯寺(Densa Thil),他的弟子們建立了噶舉的八小支派。

2. 岡倉 / 噶瑪噶舉 (The Kamtsang or Karma Kagyu)
第一世噶瑪巴杜松虔巴(1110-1170)在1139年卅歲時 禮岡波巴為上師,他是岡波巴主要的弟子,創始了噶瑪噶舉。噶瑪噶舉傳承因為噶瑪巴無間斷的轉世而非常興盛,噶瑪巴的學識、禪修成就以及佛行事業在西藏也非常著名,並廣泛受到西藏各教派的尊重。



3. 采巴噶舉 (Tsalpa Kagyu)
喇嘛祥(Lama Zhang)亦名玉達巴宗都達巴(Yudakpa Tsondu Dakpa 1123-1193)是岡波巴的弟子汪恭竹清寜波(Wangom Tsutrim Nyingpo)的弟子。他創始采巴噶舉並創建貢唐寺(Gungthang),有很多傑出的弟子。

4. 跋絨噶舉 (Barom Kagyu)
跋絨達瑪旺秋(Barom Darma Wangchuk)是岡波巴的弟子,創始跋絨噶舉並創建跋絨寺,位於西藏拉拓(Lhatök)區北部。

此八派是由帕竹噶舉 ( 帕莫竹巴的成就弟子眾 ) 所開衍出來的。

1. 直貢噶舉 (Drikhung Kagyu)
直貢覺巴吉登松吉昆波(Drikhung Kyopa Jigten Sumgyi Gönpo 1143-1217)創始。直貢久貢切桑仁波切(Drikhung Kyapgön Chetsang Rinpoche 1946),住在印度德拉東(Dehradun)是現在直貢噶舉的領導人。

2. 竹巴噶舉 (Drukpa Kagyu)
帕莫竹巴(Phakmo Trupa)的弟子大成就者林惹巴貝瑪多傑(Drupchen Lingrepa Pema Dorje 1128-1188)和他的弟子確戒倉巴加惹耶謝多傑(Chöje Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje 1161-1211)共同創始。他們在中藏創建本派最早的寺院南竹寺(Namdruk),十六世紀袞嘉貝瑪卡波(Kunkhyen Pema Karpo 1527-1592)在南藏創建祖桑阿確林寺(Druk Sang-ngak Chöling)是本派的主寺,駐錫在印度大吉嶺的怙主竹千仁波切(Kyapgön Drukchen Rinpoche)是本傳承的領導人。竹巴噶舉大師夏從恩王南吉(Shaptrung Ngakwang Namgyal)將此法系引入不丹,在不丹廣傳,並成為不丹的國教。不丹國師尊者堪布(H.H. Je Khenpo)和國王吉美森給(Jigme Senge)目前是不丹竹巴噶舉的領導人。

3. 達隆噶舉 (Taklung Kagyu)
達隆塘巴札西佩(Taklung Thangpa Tashi Pal 1142-1210)創始。達隆夏祖仁波切(Taklung Shapdrung Rinpoche),達隆瑪突仁波切(Taklung Matul Rinpoche)和察楚仁波切(Tsatrul Rinpoche)共同為本派領導人。

 4. 雅桑噶舉 (Yasang Kagyu)
剎惹哇卡丹耶謝森給(Zarawa Kalden Yeshe Senge)和他的弟子雅桑確吉蒙蘭(Yasang Chökyi Mönlam 1169-1233)共同創始,雅桑卻傑1206年創建了雅桑寺,本派名稱源於此。

5. 綽普噶舉 (Trophu Kagyu)
帕莫竹巴的姪兒也是弟子嘉察仁波切(Gyaltsab Rinpoche)和綽普大譯師欽波巴(Trophu Lotsawa Chenpo Pal 1173-1225)共同創始。綽普洛沙瓦在中藏倉(Tsang)區創建 綽普寺及學院,本派因此寺名稱綽普噶舉。

6. 修賽噶舉 (Shuksep Kagyu)
傑貢竹清森給(Gyergom Tsultrim Senge 1144-1204)創始。他於1181年在中藏曲學區(Chushur)的年普(Nyephu)創建了修賽寺(Shuksep),本派因此寺而名為修賽噶舉。

7. 也巴噶舉( Yelpa Kagyu)
也巴卓托耶謝孜巴(Yelpa Drupthop Yeshe Tsekpa)創始。並在也浦(Yelphuk)創建主寺也浦寺。

8. 瑪倉噶舉 (Martsang Kagyu)
瑪倉些饒森給(Martsang Sherab Senge)創始。

香巴噶舉 (Shangpa Kagyu)
香巴噶舉是大瑜伽士瓊布南覺(Khyungpo Nyaljor 978-1079)創始。瓊布南覺到尼泊爾時,遇見阿闍黎森瑪地(Acharya Sumati),拜師學習語文然後去印度繼續參學。他在印度追隨了一百五十多位瑜伽士學習,獲得金剛乘之精髓。他主要的上師是蘇卡悉達 (Sukhasiddhi),惹胡拉古塔(Rahulagupta)和尼古瑪(Niguma)即那洛巴的空行母 。他回到西藏後,噶當派大師朗吉塘巴(Langri Thangpa)為他圓頂及授戒。


香巴噶舉的主要教法為勝樂金鋼(Chakrasambhava)、喜金剛(Hevajra)、大乘經典、古夏三馬甲(Guhyasamaja)、尼古瑪六 法(Six Doctrines of Niguma)、大手印(Mahamudra)、六臂白瑪哈嘎拉等等。蔣貢康楚大師曾盡力恢復、保存及弘揚本派法教,使本傳承迄今仍盛行於西藏。並因為第 十六世噶瑪巴的加持和感召,香巴噶舉在世界各地也都有眾多的弟子。兩位最著名的香巴噶舉大師是尊貴的卡盧仁波切(Kalu Rinpoche)和波卡仁波切(Bokar Rinpoche)。

| 噶舉在西藏和境外的主寺

The original seat of Marpa Lotsawa is in the Lhodrak region of southern Tibet. Not too far from there, one can still see the nine-story tower built by his heart disciple, Milarepa. Milarepa, the greatest yogi of Tibet, practiced at many different mountain caves in the Himalayas, not only in Tibet, but also in some regions of Neapal. Lord Gampopa, the heart disciple of Milarepa, built his monastery at Dhaklha Gampo, in the area of Dhakpo in southern Tibet, which became the first monastic seat of the Kagyu lineage. These are the most sacred seats or places of the forefathers of the Kagyu lineage.

All the chief disciples of Gampopa and the students of Phakmo Trupa developed monastic seats throughout Tibet. One of the principal seats is the Tsurphu Monastery, in the Tölung valley of central Tibet, founded by the First Karmapa Düsum Khyenpa (1110-1193). This became one of the most important seats of the entire Kagyu lineage, and was maintained this place throughout the centuries. In exile, His Holiness the 16th Gyalwang Karmapa founded the Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim, India, which has become the main seat and the most important place for the Kagyu lineage in exile.

Some of the other most important continuously maintained seats of the Kagyu lineage are: Drikhung Thil Monastery, in the Drikhung regrion of central Tibet, founded by Drikhung Kyopa Jikten Sumgön, the principal seat of the Drikung Kagyu (in exile, H.H. Drikung Kyabgon founded the Drikung Kaygu Institute (Jangchub Ling) in Sahastradhara, Dhera Dun, India); Namdruk Monastery, in central Tibet, founded by Drupchen Lingrepa and Tsangpa Gyare, and Druk Sang-ngak Chöling in southern, founded by Kunkhyen Pema Karpo (1527-1592), the two principle seats of the Drukpa Kagyu (in exile, Druk Thubten Sangag Choeling, in Darjeeling, India, founded by Thukse Rinpoche and H. H. Drukchen Rinpoche); Palpung Monastery in the Derge region of eastern Tibet, founded by the eighth Tai Situpa, Chökyi Jungney (1700-1774) in 1727 C.E., one of the most important Karma Kagyu seats in Kham (in exile, the Palpung Institute, Bir, Himachal Pradesh, India, founded by H. E. the 12th Tai Situpa Rinpoche); Tsandra Rinchen Drak in the Derge region of eastern Tibet, founded by Jamgon Kongtrul (1813-1899) the Great (in exile, Pullhahari Monastery in Kathmandu, Nepal, founded by H.E. 3rd Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche (1954-1992)); Chögar Gong in Tsurphu, central Tibet, founded by the lines of Goshir Gyaltsabpa incarnations (in exile, Palchen Chökhor Ling in Ralang, Sikkim, India, founded by H.E. 12th Goshir Gyaltsapa Rinpoche).

Many of these monasteries were destroyed either in 1959, during the communist invasion of Tibet or later at the time of Cultural Revolution. They have now been rebuilt in full or in part with the help of local devoted Tibetans as well as support from the buddhist communities in China, or outside. The masters from these monasteries have also established their exile seats in India, Nepal, and Bhutan, from where they preserve the lineage and train younger generations of lamas and reincarnate masters.

馬爾巴譯師最早的主寺在南藏洛札(Lhodrak)區。在此區附近仍可看到他弟子密勒日巴為他建造的九層塔。大瑜伽士密勒日巴的修行道場在喜瑪拉雅山脈的很多山洞中。密勒日巴心子岡波巴大師在南藏達波區興建了達拉岡波寺(Dhaklha Gampo)是噶舉傳承的第一個主寺。以上都是噶舉傳承上師所留下最珍貴的寺院和道場。


其他重要的主寺:中藏直貢區直貢覺巴吉登松昆(Drikhung Kyopa Jikten Sumgön)創建的直貢梯寺(Drikhung Thil),它是直貢噶舉的主寺。

在中藏的南竹寺,為大成就者林惹巴(Drupchen Lingrepa)和倉巴嘉惹(Tsangpa Gyare)創建;南面的袓桑 阿確林寺(Druk Sang-ngak Chöling)為袞嘉貝瑪卡波(Kunkhyen Pema Karpo 1527-1592)創建,是竹巴噶舉的兩個主寺。

八邦寺在東藏德格區,是第八世大司徒仁波切確吉 穹乃(Chökyi Jungney 1700-1774)於1727年創建,它是噶瑪噶舉在康區最重要的主寺。(在印度喜馬偕爾邦比爾城之八邦學院是尊貴的第十二世大司徒仁波切所創立)

察卓仁千札克寺(Tsandra Rinchen Drak)在東藏德格區,是蔣貢康楚(Jamgon Kongtrul 1813-1899)創建。尊貴的第三世蔣貢康楚仁波切(1954-1992)在尼泊爾,加德滿都興建普拉哈里寺(Pullhahari Monastery)。確嘎岡寺(Chögar Gong)在中藏楚布區是國師嘉察巴(Goshir Gyaltsabpa)的轉世創建。

1959年中國軍隊進入西藏,及文化大革命時,大部份寺院都被毀壞。由於中國內外佛教徒的支持和藏人的努力,大部份已經修復。各寺院的上師、仁波切們也紛紛在印度 、尼泊爾、不丹等地興建境外主寺,以維護傳承的延續及培養教育青年的僧眾和轉世的仁波切。

| 噶舉傳承的領導人

His Holiness the Sixteenth Gyalwang Karmapa has been the head of the Kagyu lineage in Tibet and in exile India. His reincarnation, His Holiness the Seventeenth Gyalwang Karmapa Ogyen Trinley Dorje, was born in Lhathok region of Kham in eastern Tibet and received his initial education in the Kagyu tradition at Tsurphu, Tibet. His Holiness fled the communist control of Tibet in January 2000. He is currently residing in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and is continuing to receive the full lineage transmissions and education from the senior disciples of His Holiness the Sixteenth Gyalwang Karmapa.

第十六世大寶法王噶瑪巴在西藏及後在印度時為噶舉傳承的領導人。他的轉世尊貴的第十七世大寶法王噶瑪巴鄔金欽列多傑(Ogyen Trinley Dorje)在東藏康區拉拓誕生,在西藏楚布寺接受了噶舉傳承的基礎教育,並在楚布寺陞座。於公元兩千年一月初法王離開西藏到了印度,在印度達蘭沙拉 (Dharamsala)接受教育和灌頂,並從第十六世噶瑪巴弟子處得到全部傳承法教。